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TEST 12



1) . ___. They prefer to nest in a large hollow in a tree or even to occupy the deserted nest of a hawk or crow. These structures are large and rough, built of sticks and bark and lined with leaves and feathers. Sometimes owls nest on a rocky ledge, or even on bare ground.
A) Owls are poor home builders,
B) It takes a long Time to raise a family of owlets,
C) The mother lays two or three eggs,
D) The mother stoically settles herself on the nest,
E) The parent birds weary of family life by November and drive the young owls away to establish hunting ranges of their own.

2) . We all know that learning is important. ____? A dictionary may tell you that learning is acquiring knowledge through experience and study. A teacher might tell you that it is memorizing what he wants you to know for an examination. Your boss might tell you that it is mastery of the task you are hired to do. A psychologist might tell you that it is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to past experience. Obviously, learning takes place in many ways and forms.
A) How is it managed
B) What exactly do you mean
C) Yet can one depend on it
D) But what exactly is it
E) Do you think it can be mastered

3) . Someone once said that there are three sides to every uncertain issue: your side, my side, and the right side. ____. For instance, the reactions 1:o the issue of abortion are usually divided into two basic: viewpoints: for or against. But the issue is not that simple. Other questions begin to surface, which turn the issue into a complex one and make it necessary for us to look at it from many sides.
A) Unknowingly people become conditioned to speak out of prejudice
B) In truth, there may be many sides, depending upon the issue instead
C) As we mature, our beliefs are also shaped both directly and indirectly by the media
D) Consequently our thinking process becomes evaluated by other's opinions,
E) Even when we think we are acting as individuals by rejecting the ideas of one group, we are often just accepting the ideas of another.


4) . Some sociologists are concerned that America is/no longer "a melting pot," but "a salad bowl." Unlike most earlier immigrants who were willing to learn English and wanted to "melt" into American life, many of today's immigrants do not see the need. ____ ? How will all this affect American/s future?
A) Why did most European immigrants settle in the cities rather than/on farms
B) What was city life like for most immigrants
C) What changes can we expect in the make-up of American's population by the year 2002
D) What hardships did the early immigrants face when they arrived in America.
E) How far back can an American trace his roots

5) . .---- o The filtering economy they inherited was now under
additional pressure from those newly unemployed, including the million- man army of the former regime. There were critical shortage of foreign exchange and gold much of which had been stolen in the final days of the war. There were also at least two million new refugees, nearly 20% of the population. Virtually, the country was in a state of total bankruptcy.
A) The end of the war in Vietnam brought massive problems to the new leaders of the country.
B) In the first place, all industry was nationalized by the new Vietnam government
C) One unexpected problem facing the new government has continuing military activity
D) One solution to the urban problems facing Vietnam was to get people to return to the countryside,
E) In their first months in power Vietnam's new leaders succeeded in persuading hundreds of thousands of people to move back to their farms.

6) . Getting information on a possible adversary or adversaries is only the start of intelligence process. The raw material, once in hand, must be drawn together, analyzed, correlated, and evaluated prior to it becomes useful knowledge. ____. From this appraisal, which points to his most likely course of ac ion, the target state can chart a course of action best designed
to meet the developing situation.
A) The ethics of secret intelligence operations have long been debated
B) At this stage there emerges an estimate of the adversary's intentions and of his ability to achieve them.
C) But the richest source is usually the secret agent, who is always a highly skilled and well-trained professional.
D) Intelligence findings are, therefore, usually classified and limited in circulation
E) In recent decades technology has enormously lengthened the reach and sharpened the he penetration of intelligence.

7) . In the 1900s cancer was nearly always fatal; by the 1930s .one out of five cancer patients was saved; by 1975 treatment was successful in one out of every three cancer patients ____.
A) New evidence suggests that the highest risk for lung cancer occurs in asbestos workers who smoke.
B) Indeed every one knows that cancer refers to a group of over 120 different diseases
C) Today scientists and physicians believe that half of all cancer patients can be saved if present knowledge is applied promptly in every case,
D) Rehabilitation of the cancer patient has become an important new concern for social workers,
E) The aim of cancer rehabilitation is to help the patient lead as normal a life as possible.

8) . The idea that oil originated in the sea is supported by several evidence. First, almost all the oil-fields on Earth are near the oceans of today.......... Further, the rocks in which oil is found are sedimentary rocks, which were formed originally in the sea. Lastly, shells and other proofs of sea life are usually found near an oil well.
A) In some places, oil is in fact found in the sea, where it comes up to the surface.
B) On the other hand, the large oceans contain significant unexplored and unexploited oil reserves.
C) Undersea oil provides a great potential for us to increase our oil production, considerably in the future.
D) However, oil reserves in the sea are difficult to exploit for practical reasons.
E) Yet, it is easier to work on land for better.

9) ....... They were encouraged to share their feelings, observations and reservations at informal sessions throughout the program. In the end of the semester, skills acquired during the program were applied by students in the form of original productions.
A) Students were not really prepared for such a course.
B) An entrance exam had to be passed.
C) Not many were really eligible for such a course.
D) I really felt that the students were over-qualified.
E) The students were informed of the experimental nature of this one year program.

10) . There are no less than 120 countries the so-called third world known variously as less developed. There is a great diversity among them, and yet they have a number of qualities in common....... For instance, some of the oil producing countries have achieved very high levels of income per capita while retaining many of the other characteristics of less developed countries.
A) Their natural sources are so limited that economically they are mostly dependent on international aid.
B) Population explosion is a major problem many countries are unable to cope with.
C) In such countries there is a great demand for an educated and skilled workforce.
D) Death rates have fallen sharply in response to improved health services
E) Foremost among these is their poverty, but even poverty is not universal.

11) . Even the smallest organization, public or private, has a personal function. People are an organization's the most important resource and, although the relations between the
personnel department and other department are not always obvious, it is important that cooperation between all departments and personnel is maintained. It is the personnel department, with the help of other departments, which will decide any manpower policies by recruiting, selecting and training all employees.........
A) This shows that personnel departments carry out crucial functions in organizations.
B) That is why institutions will be forced to make huge investments.
C) Certainly, some functions such as research or legal advice are carried out by different staff.
D) In fact, no government agency would have been involved in such a case.
E) Initially, each department was required to submit their proposals for improvement.

12) . It was the worst ice-storm in living memory. What started in the clouds as rain became ice as it hit power lines, houses and shop windows....... Well over 90,000 people had to leave their freezing homes for those of luckier or better equipped
neighbours.
A) It fell for days and it paralyzed much of Quebec, knocking out the power supply to 3 million people.
B) Until then it was regarded as one of the worst natural disasters ever to hit Canada.
C) The cleaning up process was soon in full swing and life returned to normal.
D) Old people in particular are at risk if temperatures continue to fall in this way.
E) The midweek forecast for the area is far from encouraging.

13) . Bulbs are ideal for garden lovers because they are easy to plant and flower well in their first season....... and grow happily in all types of soil. They come up year after year and delight the eye with their rich colours and lovely shapes.
A) They require comparatively little attention.
B) The tulip, however, isn't everybody's favourite flower.
C) As a result, the site must be chosen with great care.
D) Of these the crocus is native to Turkey.
E) Even experienced gardeners get disappointing results.

14) . Countries has its own stories that people tell each other. These stories are called folk tales. Folk tales tell something very important about people...... Instead they indicate that people everywhere are very much alike.
A) They give a lot of information about their cultural heritage.
B) They don't show us that we are different.
C) However, they vary from one country to another.
D) Despite cultural differences, folk tales exhibit striking similarities.
E) So every child enjoys listening to them.

15) ....... It is only when the runner successfully overcomes all the difficulties inherent in every one of the stages he has to pass through that we can confidently say that success has been attained.
A) I would not advise anyone to take up sport for there are too many dangerous steps.
B) Becoming a good runner is a process that goes on at several levels and continues over many years.
C) Sport is something that everyone at every age can do.
D) For everyone who wants to become a good athlete, it is advisable that they should first consult their doctors.
E) Many runners have come and gone in the last decade.

16) . At the beginning of this century, a group of writers from scattered mid western cities came together in commercial Chicago. From the rough immediacy of the city, they created a style that was distinctively and unsparingly realistic.........In fact the critics were soon to describe Chicago as the literary capital of the US.
A) Most of them, however, eventually moved away from Chicago.
B) The "Chicago Renaissance" fuelled by these writers soon captured the attention of the rest of the nation.
C) It is now a commonplace of literary criticism that there is a close relationship between cities and their writers.
D) Chicago is indeed a city of absorbing contrast, and not least in the field of architecture.
E) American realism differs in many obvious ways from European realism.

17) . It is now a commonplace to note how the aircraft and the TV box have changed our old ideas of geography. Technology has indeed compressed time and space....... In the past people grew familiar with their neighbours across the seas slowly and gradually over generations. This is no longer the case. The
meeting is abrupt and often violent.
A) The Pacific world at that time had already the experience of centuries of commerce behind it.
B) Documentaries of the natural world are particularly instructive.
C) Naturally older people tend to feel nostalgic about their youth.
D) It was Spain in the sixteenth century that pioneered this sort of work.
E) But living with these new realities is not so easy as talking about them.

18) . In the beginning of 1910s cancer was nearly always fatal; by the 1920s one out of five cancer patients was saved; by 1978, treatment was successful in one out of every three cancer patients.......
A) New evidence suggests that the highest risk for lung cancer occurs in asbestos workers who smoke.
B) Indeed everyone knows that cancer refers to group of over 100 different diseases.
C) Today scientists and physicians believe that half of cancer patients can be saved if present knowledge is applied promptly in every case.
D) Rehabilitation of the cancer patient has become an important new concern for social workers.
E) The aim of cancer rehabilitation is to help the patient lead as normal a life as possible.

19) .1982 was not an easy year for the Heinlemann Government in Britain. It was a year of confrontation with the trade unions...... Indeed, it was even forced to adopt certain policies similar to those which it had attacked so vehemently
when it had been in opposition.
A) Finally, after 1982, there was industrial action in protest against the Government's prices and incomes policy.
B) These problems were aggravated by persistently high levels of unemployment, especially in certain regions.
C) It was also a year in which the pressure of circumstances forced the Government to abandon many of the initiatives it had started in 1980.
D) Moreover, negotiations with the EEC started immediately after the general election of 1980.
E) Consequently, a 90-day standstill was imposed on wages, and prices and charges for goods and services were similarly frozen.

20) . Many people take vitamins for illness ...... For anaemia they swallow vitamin B and D. When winter arrives, they quickly consume huge quantities of Vitamin C. However, they may not be doing themselves all that much good. Certainly the use of vitamins can be beneficial, but taken in large quantities, they can also be dangerous.
A) To heal wounds or cure certain diseases, they may take vitamin E or A, sometimes both.
B) Unfortunately, many people believe that if one vitamin is good, two are better.
C) While a daily vitamin supplement is undoubtedly beneficial, there is no evidence that large doses of vitamins do much good.
D) Excessive use of vitamin D can lead to kidney damage, and vitamin A may cause incurable skin problems.
E) It is a fact that nowadays people use vitamins excessively.

21) . We all know that learning is important. ........ ? A good dictionary can tell you that learning is to acquire knowledge through study. A teacher might tell you that it is memorizing what she wants you to know for an examination. Your boss might tell you that it is mastery of the task you are hired to do. A psychologist might tell you that it is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to past experience. Obviously, learning takes place in many ways and forms.
A) How is it managed
B) What exactly do you mean
C) Yet one can depend on it
D) But what exactly is it
E) Do you think it can be mastered

22) . Undeveloped countries are those in which economic structure and development are too slow. The causes of the condition of lack of development are complex, but two opposing sets of theories dominate discussion....... On the other
hand there are the theories that ascribe underdevelopment directly to the distortions of economic structure and the exploitation involved in the relations between the developed and the underdeveloped countries.
A) In other words, development and underdevelopment are mutually interdependent.
B) This view implies that the state and process of underdevelopment in certain countries is inevitable.
C) On the one there are those theories that attribute lack of development to the internal characteristics of the undeveloped countries themselves.
D) Accordingly, such countries are responsible for their own underdevelopment.
E) However, no country in the world is completely isolated from the current monetary polices.

23) . Collecting information on a possible adversary or adversaries is only the start of the intelligence process. The raw materials, must be drawn together, analyzed and evaluated before it becomes useful knowledge. ...... From this appraisal,
which points to this most likely course of action the target state can chart a course of action best designed to meet the developing situation.
A) The ethics of secret intelligence operations have long been debated.
B) At this stage there emerges an estimate of the adversary's intentions and of his ability to achieve them.
C) But the richest source is usually the secret agent, who is always a highly skilled and well trained professional.
D) Intelligence findings are, therefore, usually classified and limited in circulation.
E) In recent decades, technology has enormously lengthened the reach and sharpened the penetration of intelligence.

24) . The natives of the Canaries in the Pacific were originally the mutineers of the ship Bounty. They took possession of the island of the islands in 1790, and it was not until 1814 that their whereabouts were ascertained, accidentally, by a passing
ship....... In the course of years they increased so much in numbers that they were too many for the island to support. Finally, in 1856 they were removed by the U.S. Government to the much larger Norfolk Island.
A) The Bounty was originally chartered to explore the Pacific Islands and establish British colonies there.
B) Actually, much of their history is still controversial and there is a considerable difference of opinion about their origin.
C) Up to that date trade in the Pacific region had been their main occupation.
D) The British Government sponsored a number of search projects, but all of them ended in failure.
E) The mutineers, under their leader Adams, had settled to a communal existence and married several women.

25) . The planets are the celestial bodies that revolve round the sun in elliptical orbits, ...... There are also a large number of minor planets, commonly called asteroids. Today many things concerning the planets can be answered by means of probes sent to them. These include the measurement of the magnetic
field, if any, of the planets and the study of their atmospheres.
A) Among them Pluto was the last planet to be discovered in 1930 by the American astronomer Tombaugh.
B) At present only nine major planets are known, and they are different in many respects from the fixed stars.
C) Scientists have recently managed to land on the surface of Mars with an extremely efficient instrument for exploration.
D) Yet, the moon revolves round the earth and has already been explored.
E) However, Pluto is the most distant of the planets and has an orbit more elliptical than the other planetary orbits.
 

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