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İNGİLİZCE KİTAP TANITIM 

İLETİŞİM  REKLAM

PLURAL FORMS OF NOUNS
(İSİMLERİN ÇOĞUL HALLERİ)


a)Çoğu isimin sonuna –s & -es takıları getirilir.

Singular Plural :
boat  - boats
hat -  hats
house -  houses
river  - rivers

b) Eğer bir ismin son sesi sessiz harf + y den oluşuyorsa, - ies ismin sonuna eklenir:

Singular Plural
a cry  - cries
a fly  - flies
a nappy -  nappies
a poppy -  poppies
a city  - cities
a lady  - ladies
a baby  - babies


c) çoğul halleri düzensiz olan İsmler:
TEKİL ÇOĞUL 
woman women
man men
child children
tooth teeth
foot  feet
person people
leaf leaves
half halves
knife knives
wife wives
life lives
loaf loaves
potato potatoes
cactus cacti
focus foci
fungus fungi
nucleus nuclei
syllabus syllabi/syllabuses
analysis analyses
diagnosis diagnoses
oasis oases
thesis theses
crisis crises
phenomenon phenomena
criterion criteria
datum data


d) bazı isimlerin hem tekil hemde çoğul halleri aynıdır:

Singular - Plural
sheep  - sheep
fish -  fish
species -  species
aircraft -  aircraft


e) bazı isimler hep çoğul biçimde kullanılır ve çoğul fil alırlar:

trousers : My trousers are too tight.
jeans:  Her jeans are black.
glasses : Those glasses are his.

savings, thanks, steps, stair, customs, congratulations, tropics, wages, spectacles, outskirts, goods, wits

DÜZENLİ & DÜZENSİZ İSİMLERİN ÇOĞUL HALLERİ

b) box – boxes                 church – churches  

    brush – brushes           class - classes    

    buzz - buzzes

Final –es is added to nouns that end in –ch, -sh, -ss, and -z

c) baby – babies               party – parties

    city – cities                    poppy – poppies

Words ending in consonant + y take –ies as a plural suffix.

d) man - Men

Foot- feet

Ox – oxen

Tooth – teeth

These nouns have irregular forms, so there is no specific rule.

    Woman     -

women

Mouse    -

Mice

    Child         -    

Children

Goose    - 

Geese

e) echo – echoes                          potato – potatoes

    hero – heroes                            tomato – tomatoes

Some nouns ending in –o take final ­–es.

f) auto- autos               photo- photos       studio – studios

   ghetto-ghettos          piano- pianos       tattoo- tattoos

   kilo- kilos                   radio –radios        video – videos

   memo-memos           solo- solos            zoo- zoos

   soprano – sopranos

   kangaroo- kangaroos

 

Only the final –s is added to some nouns ending in – o

 

g) memento – mementoes/ mementos

    volcano-  volcanoes/ volcanos

    zero – zeroes/ zeros

    mosquito- mosquitoes/ mosquitos

    tornado – tornadoes/ tornados

 

It is possible to add –es or –s to nouns in this category.

h) calf –calves      life – lives         thief- thieves

    half – halves     loaf- loaves       wolf – wolves

    knife- knives     self- selves       scarf – scarves

    shelf – shelves

Some nouns that end in –f or fe are changed to – ves to form the plural.

i)  belief – beliefs                            cliff- cliffs

    chief – chiefs                              roof – roofs

Some nouns ending in –f are not changed and simply – s is added to form the plural.

j) deer – deer        series – series    means - means 

   fish -   fish         sheep – sheep     shrimp – shrimp

   offspring- offspring  

   species – species

 

Some nouns have the same singular and plural form.

 

k) criterion – criteria     phenomenon- phenomena

 

l) cactus – cacti/ cactuses                nucleus – nuclei

   fungus- fungi                                  stimulus – stimuli

   syllabus- syllabi/ syllabuses

  

m) formula – formulae/ formulas

     vertebra – vertebrae

 

n) appendix – appendices/ appendixes

    index- indices/ indexes

 

o) analysis – analyses            basis – bases

    crisis – crises                      hypothesis- hypotheses

    oasis – oases                      thesis- theses

    parenthesis – parentheses

 

p) bacterium – bacteria           curriculum – curricula

    datum – data                        medium – media

    memorandum – memoranda

  

Some nouns that English has borrowed from other languages have foreign plurals.


Some nouns have the same singular and plural form.

k) criterion – criteria phenomenon- phenomena

l) cactus – cacti/ cactuses nucleus – nuclei
fungus- fungi stimulus – stimuli
syllabus- syllabi/ syllabuses

m) formula – formulae/ formulas
vertebra – vertebrae

n) appendix – appendices/ appendixes
index- indices/ indexes

o) analysis – analyses basis – bases
crisis – crises hypothesis- hypotheses
oasis – oases thesis- theses
parenthesis – parentheses

p) bacterium – bacteria curriculum – curricula
datum – data medium – media
memorandum – memoranda
Some nouns that English has borrowed from other languages have foreign plurals.

 

 

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